Nearly one fifth of humanity do not have access to electricity, and more than double this number still rely on the use of biomass for cooking. Experience suggests that when a household or a whole community gains access to modern energy, defined here as electricity and improved cookstoves (see Appendix), there are many benefits to the economy and to people’s quality of life. However because of the different roles that are assigned to men and women, any major change in living situation such as energy access has the potential to affect men and women differently. While there are many anecdotes suggesting that gaining access to modern energy brings specific benefits to women, rigorous impact evaluation studies are harder to find. This paper reviews the evidence from available studies on how gaining access to electricity and clean cooking impacts women and girls.